How do you know for sure whether or not to use a closing? One good test is to ask yourself whether this email is more akin to an instant message/text or a business letter. If you're giving your teammate a quick update on an ongoing project, a formal closing might not be necessary; if you're throwing your hat in the ring for a promotion, it definitely is required. When all else fails, and you're still not sure, err on the side of caution and include it. You'll never go wrong by being too polite and respectful.
It is established etiquette by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, United States Department of Defense, the U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, and the U.S. Air Force that the closing “Respectfully yours” be reserved for the President of the United States (according to U.S. Army standards, this also extends to the first lady and the President_elect).