How do you know for sure whether or not to use a closing? One good test is to ask yourself whether this email is more akin to an instant message/text or a business letter. If you're giving your teammate a quick update on an ongoing project, a formal closing might not be necessary; if you're throwing your hat in the ring for a promotion, it definitely is required. When all else fails, and you're still not sure, err on the side of caution and include it. You'll never go wrong by being too polite and respectful.
Anything that you'd use in an informal communication is inappropriate for a business letter. This includes slang, text_speak, emojis, and anything off_color or casual. If you're used to communicating mostly with friends, family, or even co_workers you've worked with for a long time, an appropriate closing for a business letter will probably feel pretty stilted at first. Don't worry about it – your colleague or business associate won't feel that way when he or she reads your correspondence. What seems unnatural to you will feel respectful and polite to the recipient.